1) There are many types of Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) or Plasma Arc Furnaces (PAF).
2) The beauty of the Submerged Arc Furnace (SAF) is that using a SAF can eliminate landfills.
3) The SAF can process almost any type of waste material, preferably solids or liquids.
4) The SAF is an EAF that has a concentrated energy release in the Melt Pot.
5) Most of the SAF’s own waste materials can be recycled back into the SAF.
6) The SAF system can recover its cost via tipping fees, converting synthesis gas to transportation fuels and product revenues generated.
7) The temperatures are high enough to melt iron, liquify glass and bricks, and pyrolize and gasify organic materials.
8) The Input Waste Streams usually contain organic, inorganic and metallic substances
9) The SAF separates organic materials into 1) an offgas stream, 2) inorganics into a molten slag layer, and 3) metals in a miscible molten metal layer.
10) The offgas is dissociated into simple hydrocarbon compounds for a fuelgas or a syngas.
11) The SAF has graphite (carbon) electrodes immersed into the molten slag in the Melt Pot.
12) The input waste feed (IWF) is fed into the Octy-Psi (or just Psi) section.
13) This cooler feedstock top provides a cold top cover for the slag.
14) The Psi section is where the pyrolysis and most gasification is done.
15) The Gasifier section provides the residence time at temperature to compete the gasification.
16) The Offgas Cleanup System (OGCS) cools and lowers the particulates and acid gases to acceptable downsteam levels.
The SAF has a higher energy efficiency (~95%) than other EAF or PAF.
The SAF system is a very simple including semi-closed, straight-through system with inlet and outlet ports.
There is no typical power plant stack.
The SAF refractory has an extremely long lifetime (many years). The design of the refractory layers and operating conditions result in a layer of solidified slag on the walls of the Melt Pot, protecting the refractory from the corrosion of the slag. There is no water cooling of the chamber which makes it safer than other similar applications that have water cooled walls.
Particulate matter that carries over with the offgas is collected in the Offgas Cleanup System (OCS) and returned to the SAF feed port. There is no waste.
Inorganics cast into products
The slag is made from ash, glass, bricks, soil, and similar inorganics. The chemical composition is that of a basalt, e.g., lava rock. When cast into construction products it resembles porcelain or slate. The Glass Ceramic products are very durable and attractive.
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